Long-Term Educational Consequences of Secondary School Vouchers: Evidence from Administrative Records in Colombia

Eric Bettinger,
Eric Bettinger Associate Professor of Economics of Education - Stanford Graduate School of Education, Research Associate - National Bureau of Economic Research
Joshua Angrist, and Michael Kremer
Michael Kremer
Michael Kremer Gates Professor of Developing Societies - Department of Economics at Harvard University

April 1, 2005


Colombia’s PACES program provided over 125,000 poor children with vouchers that covered half the cost of private secondary school. The vouchers were renewable annually conditional on adequate academic progress. Since many vouchers were assigned by lottery, program effects can reliably be assessed by comparing lottery winners and losers. Estimates using administrative records suggest the PACES program increased secondary school completion rates by 15-20 percent. Correcting for the greater percentage of lottery winners taking college admissions tests, the program increased test scores by two-tenths of a standard deviation in the distribution of potential test scores.