Welcome to The Brookings Institution website. The Brookings Institution provides services to you subject to the following conditions. If you visit or shop at this site, you accept these conditions. Please read them carefully. In addition, when you use any current or future Brookings Institution service or visit or purchase from any business affiliated with The Brookings Institution, whether or not included in this website, you also will be subject to the guidelines and conditions applicable to such service or business.


Please review our Privacy Policy, which also governs your visit to The Brookings Institution website, to understand our practices.

Electronic Communications

When you visit this site and send emails to us, you are communicating with us electronically and thus consent to receive communications from us electronically. We will communicate with you by email or by posting notices on this site. You agree that all agreements, notices, disclosures, and other communications that we provide to you electronically satisfy any legal requirement that such communications be in writing.


All content included on this site, such as text, graphics, logos, button icons, images, audio clips, digital downloads, data compilations, and software, is the property of The Brookings Institution or its content suppliers and protected by United States and international copyright laws. The compilation of all content on this site is the exclusive property of The Brookings Institution unless otherwise noted and protected by U.S. and international copyright laws. All software used on this site is the property of The Brookings Institution or its software suppliers and protected by United States and international copyright laws.


THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION, and other marks indicated on our site are registered trademarks of The Brookings Institution or its subsidiaries, in the United States and other countries. The Brookings Institution’s trademarks and trade dress may not be used in connection with any product or service that is not The Brookings Institution’s, in any manner that is likely to cause confusion among customers, or in any manner that disparages or discredits The Brookings Institution. All other trademarks not owned by The Brookings Institution or its subsidiaries that appear on this site are the property of their respective owners, who may or may not be affiliated with, connected to, or sponsored by The Brookings Institution or its subsidiaries.

License and Site Access

The Brookings Institution grants you a limited license to access and make personal use of this site and not to download (other than page caching) or modify it, or any portion of it, except with express written consent of The Brookings Institution. This license does not include any resale or commercial use of this site or its contents; any collection and use of any product listings, descriptions, or prices; any derivative use of this site or its contents; any downloading or copying of account information for the benefit of a third-party; or any use of data mining, robots, or similar data gathering and extraction tools.

This site or any portion of this site may not be reproduced, duplicated, copied, sold, resold, visited, or otherwise exploited for any commercial purpose without express written consent of The Brookings Institution. You may not frame or utilize framing techniques to enclose any trademark, logo, or other proprietary information (including images, text, page layout, or form) of The Brookings Institution and our affiliates without express written consent. You may not use any meta tags or any other “hidden text” utilizing The Brookings Institution’s name or trademarks without the express written consent of The Brookings Institution. Any unauthorized use terminates the permission or license granted by The Brookings Institution. You are granted a limited, revocable, and nonexclusive right to create hyperlinks to the home page or other pages of The Brookings Institution so long as any links do not portray The Brookings Institution, its affiliates, or their products or services in a false, misleading, derogatory, or otherwise offensive manner. You may not use any of The Brookings Institution’s logos or other proprietary graphics or trademarks as part of the link without express written permission.

Links to Third Party Sites

Some links posted on this site will let you leave The Brookings Institution’s site. These linked sites are not under the control of The Brookings Institution and The Brookings Institution is not responsible for the contents of any linked site or any link contained in a linked site, or any changes or updates to such sites. The Brookings Institution is not responsible for webcasting or any other form of transmission received from any linked site. The Brookings Institution is providing these links to you only as a convenience, and the inclusion of any link does not imply endorsement by The Brookings Institution of the site.

Your Account

If you use this site, you are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of your account and password and for restricting access to your computer, and you agree to accept responsibility for all activities that occur under your account or password. If you are under 18, we assume that you are using The Brookings Institution website with the permission of a parent or authorized guardian. The Brookings Institution and its affiliates reserve the right to refuse service, terminate accounts, remove or edit content, or cancel orders in their sole discretion.

Reviews, Comments, Communications, and Other Content

Visitors may submit reviews, suggestions, ideas, comments, questions, or other information concerning website content, so long as the submission is not illegal, obscene, threatening, defamatory, invasive of privacy, infringing of intellectual property rights, or otherwise injurious to third parties or objectionable and does not consist of or contain software viruses, political campaigning, commercial solicitation, chain letters, mass mailings, or any form of “spam.” You may not use a false email address, impersonate any person or entity, or otherwise mislead as to the origin of the content. The Brookings Institution reserves the right (but not the obligation) to remove or edit such content.

If you do post content or submit material, and unless we indicate otherwise, you grant The Brookings Institution and its affiliates a nonexclusive, royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable, and fully sublicensable right to use, reproduce, modify, adapt, publish, translate, create derivative works from, distribute, and display such content throughout the world in any media. You grant The Brookings Institution and its affiliates and sublicensees the right to use the name that you submit in connection with such content, if they choose. You represent and warrant that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the content that you post; that the content is accurate; that use of the content you supply does not violate this policy and will not cause injury to any person or entity; and that you will indemnify The Brookings Institution or its affiliates for all claims resulting from content you supply. The Brookings Institution has the right but not the obligation to monitor and edit or remove any activity or content. The Brookings Institution takes no responsibility and assumes no liability for any content posted by you or any third party.

By visiting sections of Brookings.edu that contain user-submitted content, you acknowledge and understand that the opinions posted on Brookings.edu are solely those of the authors and not of The Brookings Institution, their officers, staff, board, funders, or organizations with which they may have a relationship.

Unsolicited email Policy

The presence of email addresses on this site is not an invitation for unsolicited commercial email. The use of spiders, robots, and other technologies to collect email addresses from this site is prohibited. Senders of email are expected to abide by all applicable state and federal laws.

Unsolicited Idea Submission Policy

Neither The Brookings Institution nor any of its employees accepts or considers unsolicited ideas, including ideas for new advertising campaigns, new promotions, new products or technologies, processes, materials, marketing plans, or new product names. Please do not send any original creative artwork, samples, demos, or other works. The sole purpose of this policy is to avoid potential misunderstandings or disputes when The Brookings Institution’s products or marketing strategies might seem similar to ideas submitted to The Brookings Institution. So, please do not send your unsolicited ideas to The Brookings Institution or anyone at The Brookings Institution. If, despite our request that you not send us your ideas and materials, you still send them, please understand that The Brookings Institution makes no assurances that your ideas and materials will be treated as confidential or proprietary.

Copyright Complaints

The Brookings Institution and its affiliates respect the intellectual property of others. If you believe that your work has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, please follow our Notice and Procedure for Making Claims of Copyright Infringement.

Risk of Loss

All items purchased from The Brookings Institution are made pursuant to a shipment contract. This means that the risk of loss and title for such items pass to you upon our delivery to the carrier.

Product Descriptions

The Brookings Institution and its affiliates attempt to be as accurate as possible. However, The Brookings Institution does not warrant that product descriptions or other content of this site is accurate, complete, reliable, current, or error-free. If a product offered by The Brookings Institution itself is not as described, your sole remedy is to return it in unused condition.

Disclaimer of Warranties and Limitation of Liability

This site is provided by The Brookings Institution on an “as is” and “as available” basis. The Brookings Institution makes no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, as to the operation of this site or the information, content, materials, or products included on this site. You expressly agree that your use of this site is at your sole risk.

To the full extent permissible by applicable law, The Brookings Institution disclaims all warranties, express or implied, including, but not limited to, implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. The Brookings Institution does not warrant that this site, its servers, or email sent from The Brookings Institution are free of viruses or other harmful components. The Brookings Institution will not be liable for any damages of any kind arising from the use of this site, including, but not limited to direct, indirect, incidental, punitive, and consequential damages.

Certain state laws do not allow limitations on implied warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain damages. If these laws apply to you, some or all of the above disclaimers, exclusions, or limitations may not apply to you, and you might have additional rights.

Applicable Law

By visiting The Brookings Institution, you agree that the laws of the District of Columbia, U.S.A., without regard to principles of conflict of laws, will govern these Conditions of Use and any dispute of any sort that might arise between you and The Brookings Institution or its affiliates.


Any dispute relating in any way to your visit to The Brookings Institution or to products you purchase through The Brookings Institution shall be submitted to confidential arbitration of our choosing except that, to the extent you have in any manner violated or threatened to violate The Brookings Institution’s intellectual property rights, The Brookings Institution may seek injunctive or other appropriate relief in any state or federal court in the District of Columbia, and you consent to exclusive jurisdiction and venue in such courts. Arbitration under this agreement shall be conducted under the rules then prevailing of the American Arbitration Association. The arbitrator’s award shall be binding and may be entered as a judgment in any court of competent jurisdiction. To the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, no arbitration under this Agreement shall be joined to an arbitration involving any other party subject to this Agreement, whether through class arbitration proceedings or otherwise.

Site Policies, Modification, and Severability

Please review our other policies, such as our Privacy Policy, posted on this site. These policies also govern your visit to The Brookings Institution’s website. We reserve the right to make changes to our site, policies, and these Terms of Use at any time. If any of these conditions shall be deemed invalid, void, or for any reason unenforceable, that condition shall be deemed severable and shall not affect the validity and enforceability of any remaining condition.

Our Address

The Brookings Institution
1775 Massachusetts Ave, NW
Washington, DC 20036


If you believe that your work has been copied in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, please provide The Brookings Institution’s DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act) agent the written information specified below. Please note that this procedure is exclusively for notifying The Brookings Institution and its affiliates that your believe that your copyrighted material has been infringed on this website.

  • An electronic or physical signature of the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed;
  • A description of the copyrighted work(s) that you claim has been infringed upon;
  • Identification of the material that is claimed to be infringing and information reasonably sufficient to allow The Brookings Institution to locate the material on the site;
  • Information reasonably sufficient to contact you, such as your address, telephone number, and email address;
  • A statement by you that you have a good-faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law;
  • A statement by you, made under penalty of perjury, that the above information in your notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed or authorized to act on the behalf of the copyright owner or owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.

The Brookings Institution’s DMCA Agent for notice of claims of copyright infringement on its site can be reached as follows:

Office of the General Counsel
The Brookings Institution
1775 Massachusetts Ave, NW
Washington, DC 20036

By phone: (202) 741-6503
By facsimile: (407) 797-2496
By e-mail: [email protected]