The U.S. Nuclear Weapons Cost Study Project was completed in August 1998 and resulted in the book Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Since 1940 edited by Stephen I. Schwartz. These project pages should be considered historical.
To protect the new underground headquarters of the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) from shockwaves caused by nuclear explosions, workers (circa 1963) install the first of more than 1,300 giant metal springs on which buildings were later constructed. Each spring was approximately 4 feet (1.2 meters) long and 20 inches (50.8 centimeters) in diameter, and could withstand a maximum pressure of 65,000 pounds (29,545 kilograms).
Credit: U.S. Army (courtesy U.S. Army Corps of Engineers)