“We accomplished a great deal and more than we even expected,” U.S. Special Envoy for Climate Change Todd Stern said at a Brookings event following the conclusion of the global climate change conference in Paris (COP21). When asked by event moderator Bruce Jones, vice president and director of Foreign Policy at Brookings, Mr. Stern described the key accomplishments:
- The first “universal lasting climate regime … applicable to all parties”
- The fact of 186 individual country targets (INDCs) with a system of review and revision
- Very strong global goals: 2 degrees (Celsius) or even lower
- A new architecture that does not pit the developed against the developing countries
- Strong focus on the issue of adaptation
- A “good balance” for technology support
Stern called it “a high ambition agreement.” Watch:
Read the latest from Bruce Jones and Adele Morris on Beyond the Paris agreement: COP21 shouldn’t be a milestone, but rather a launching pad for a new phase of climate action
Visit our Paris climate change conference page for all research and commentary on the key issues from COP21.
The findings, interpretations and conclusions posted on Brookings.edu are solely those of the authors and not of The Brookings Institution, its officers, staff, board, funders, or organizations with which they may have a relationship.
Indian Railways’ business model is based on passengers underpaying and freight overpaying. Already, in financial year 2016-17, coal’s extra freight charge increased the cost of power by about 10 paise per kilowatt on average. For power plants in distant states, which inherently rely on Railways for coal, this number can be three times higher.
Gujarat, Punjab, Tamil Nadu that are far from coal mines, and therefore pay more than others, will contribute proportionately more to recover the coaching loss — the passenger subsidy. This overpayment by coal-based power applies to all coal generation in States like Punjab as all their coal comes via Railways.