France’s strategic defence review, published in April, was met with sighs of relief in several European capitals and in Washington. Many had feared that Paris would replicate the debilitating defence cuts introduced by a number of European countries since the onset of the economic crisis. According to some EU officials, European defence budgets combined have dropped from €200 to €170 billion since 2008, as governments have sought to rein in public spending. But President François Hollande resisted calls from his finance ministry to reduce the defence budget by 10 per cent. Instead he has frozen funds for France’s armed forces at just over €30 billion a year until 2019.
Nevertheless, the French review, known as the ‘Livre Blanc’, is an uncomfortable reminder to all Europeans of the security challenges they face. The white paper highlights that Europe’s stability continues to be threatened from many directions, not least North Africa, the Middle East and the Sahel. It also recognises that the United States is suffering from its own budgetary strains and is tired of long military operations. It therefore argues that Europeans should not assume that Washington will provide its full military support to stem conflicts which are primarily of interest to Europe.
Read the full paper at the Centre for European Reform or download below.
Initially, it seemed Turkey was seeking a bargain with or financial support from Saudi Arabia. But it increasingly appears that Turkey is seeking to inflict maximum damage on [Mohammad bin Salman].