The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty: Looking Back and Lessons for the Future
December 8 marked the 25th anniversary of the signature of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. Under this treaty, the United States and Soviet Union eliminated all their land-based missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometers. Such an outcome was hardly foreseeable in the early 1980s, especially after the Soviets walked out of the negotiations in 1983. In December 1987, however, President Ronald Reagan and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev signed the landmark agreement.
On December 7, the Arms Control Initiative at Brookings hosted a discussion of the INF Treaty, exploring the negotiations, the factors that led to their successful conclusion and what lessons might be learned for future nuclear arms control negotiations. Panelists include three former senior U.S. government officials who were closely involved with the INF issue— former Ambassadors Avis Bohlen and John Woodworth, and Major General (USA, Ret) William F. Burns. Brookings Senior Fellow Steven Pifer, director of the Arms Control Initiative, moderated. The event marked the release of the new Arms Control Series paper, “The Treaty on Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces: History and Lessons Learned.”
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At the end of the day, as we all know thorny national security issues don’t just involve the military; political-military considerations invariably bleed into them. If the senior military’s leadership views are going to be just constrained to military advice … who is thinking about issues from that broader perspective?
President-elect Bolsonaro has embraced tough-on-crime measures that egregiously violate basic human rights and eviscerate the rule of law. Responding to Brazil’s 63,880 homicides in 2017, Bolsonaro calls for increasing protection for police officers who kill alleged criminals and arming citizens. He calls for further militarizing urban policing, reducing the age of criminal liability from 18 to 16, reinstating the death penalty, authorizing torture in interrogations and imprisoning more people... Brazil’s police are already notorious for being one of the world’s deadliest in the use of force. In many favelas, Brazil’s retired and current police officers operate illegal militias that extort and control local communities, murdering those who oppose them and engaging in warfare with Brazil’s highly-violent gangs and in social cleansing. Bolsonaro is simply threatening to turn the rest of the police into state-sanctioned thugs.