Up Front

Improving the Medicare ACO Program: The Top Eight Policy Issues

S. Lawrence Kocot, Ross White, Mark B. McClellan, and Farzad Mostashari

There are now more than 335 Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) participating in the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) in 47 states, DC, and Puerto Rico. Early results show that most Medicare ACOs are succeeding at meeting their quality benchmarks, but only about a quarter of MSSP participants have been able to reduce their spending enough below projected financial targets to qualify for shared savings. While these results are encouraging, especially given the financial and practice transformation necessary to succeed as an ACO, they also suggest that more work is needed from both CMS and the providers to ensure continued sustainability of the MSSP ACOs.

Given that the first three year cycle of MSSP ends in 2015 and more providers will likely be entering the MSSP in the coming years , the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has indicated that they intend to release a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) that will establish the rule for participation in the Medicare ACO program. In anticipation of these coming changes, the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform released an issue brief that identifies the “Top Eight ACO Challenges” to encourage further discussion and considerations for ensuring the continued success of ACOs. These potential policy alternatives build on discussions with ACO Learning Network members and other related stakeholders implementing accountable care across the country and include the following issues.

These issues, and many others, will be a focus of the discussions at the upcoming Fifth National ACO Summit later this week.


Top Eight Medicare ACO Challenges

1. Make Technical Adjustments to Benchmarks and Payments
In order for ACOs to qualify for shared savings, they must be able to hold spending below a financial benchmark set using historical spending patterns and meet a certain threshold of person and population-level quality metrics. A number of issues should be considered that affect the ACO’s chances of being able to attain shared savings and have more predictability about their performance: benchmark calculation methodology, how to adjust for regional variation in performance, and risk adjustment.

2. Transition to More Person-Based Payments

The ultimate goal of an ACO is to improve quality at the patient and population level and control the growth of health care costs. In order to successfully achieve this mission, ACOs must over time make a transition to payments that involve the assumption of more risk by the provider organization with a reward for better health outcomes for groups of patients. ACOs must have a clear transition path for increasing accountability and assumption of more risk for patient health outcomes.

3. Increase Beneficiary Engagement

Patients can play a critical role in helping to achieve the goals of an ACO. Health outcomes are determined by whether patients follow prescribed therapies. Increasing beneficiary engagement holds the potential to make patients more activated members of the ACO who can contribute to its success. A number of issues should be considered to improve beneficiary engagement, including adjusting attribution methods, creating more incentives for patients to seek care within the ACO, and finding opportunities to activate patients as part of the care team.

4. Enhance and Improve Alignment of Performance Measures

A central tenet of Medicare ACOs is delivering high quality health care as determined by performance on 33 measures established by CMS. ACOs must meet performance benchmarks in order to be eligible for shared savings, ensuring that these organizations are delivering high value, rather than simply cheaper, care. A number of barriers exist to achieving better performance measurement, including administrative burdens, lack of measure alignment among payers, lack of rewards for quality improvement, and concerns about measure selection.

5. Enable Better and More Consistent Supporting Data

In order to succeed as an ACO, organizations must be able to effectively collect, interpret, and use clinical and claims data to transform care of their patients. ACOs need to adopt new health IT systems and other technologies in order to collect and use the growing amount of data. ACOs currently struggle with reconciling data between different sources, dealing with patients who opt out of data sharing, lack of timeliness for receiving data, difficulty of tracking patients through the health system, and delays in performance feedback.

Authors

6. Link to Additional Value-Based Payment Reforms

ACOs are just one of many payment reforms that health care organizations across the country are implementing to improve quality and reduce costs. Aligning the vision and components of these other initiatives with ACO reforms has the potential to reinforce the shared goals and fundamentally change the health system. However, there are barriers to achieving this alignment such as lacks of linkages to bundled payments and other new payment models, multi-payer ACOs with different payment systems, and inability for organizations to participate in multiple CMS payment innovations.

7. Develop Bonus Payments and Other Incentives to Participate

In order to effectively transform clinical practice, ACOs must create or procure significant financial and human capital, as well as transform their information technology and delivery infrastructure. A recent survey estimates the average start-up cost for creating an ACO to be $2 million, with some ACOs investing significantly more in their first few years. Many ACOs, especially smaller ones, struggle to find sufficient start-up capital, are uncertain if they can assume the level of risk required for an ACO, and need significant staff and clinical change to effectively transform care.

8. Support Clinical Transformation

Becoming and succeeding as an ACO is a vast undertaking that requires immediately beginning to transform practice, finance, and operations. However, many providers, particularly those that are less experienced at systemic practice transformation, need more support in undertaking clinical transformation.

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