Several European Union (EU) member states have an explicit ambition to strengthen their energy security by tapping into indigenous shale gas reserves. To date a complex set of factors has contributed to the fact that no commercial shale gas extraction has taken place. Though debates in the European Commission (EC) and the European Parliament (EP) continue, decision-making regarding shale gas extraction continues to be an affair primarily addressed at the member state level. In this short paper, we argue that while the division of labor between supranational institutions and member states in the EU seems to have been demarcated clearly for now, intra-EU debates about shale gas extraction will inevitably continue, as the EC continues to have a large mandate related to environmental issues such as air quality and water quality. It may be that European institutions in the coming years propose binding European legislation specific to shale gas after all.
[Trump] didn't say one word about Ukraine and he had to be briefed on this stuff. The only person to say that the United States says the annexation of Crimea wasn't legal and disagrees with Russia was the president of Russia. The overall contrast [with Trump's criticisms of German Chancellor Angela Merkel, British Prime Minister Theresa May, and the EU earlier in the trip] coupled with Trump's inability to say Russia had done anything to contribute to the downturn of US-Russia relations, either way it's scary. Either he forgot there's a problem or he wasn't willing. He would have had no problem listing his grievances against Germany, but against Putin, he's not capable of saying anything.