This project was completed in August 1998 and resulted in the book Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Since 1940 edited by Stephen I. Schwartz. These project pages should be considered historical.
New research on arms control and nuclear weapons is being conducted by the Brookings Arms Control Initiative.
Removing a Minuteman II missile from its silo at Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota
During the early-to-mid 1960s, 450 Minuteman II ICBMs were deployed in underground silos in Missouri, Montana, and South Dakota. In 1991, President George Bush ordered the retirement of the entire Minuteman II fleet. Between 1993 and 1997, 449 Minuteman II silos were emptied and destroyed (the sole remaining silo and one launch control capsule at Ellsworth Air Force Base are slated to become a museum under the care of the National Park Service).
Following the deactivation of the missile and the removal of its W56 nuclear warhead, the missile is removed from its silo via a specially- designed vehicle. Retired missiles are stored by the Air Force for later use as test vehicles or for use in other military programs. The cost to destroy a Minuteman silo is approximately $189,000 apiece.
Credit: U.S. Air Force