The transformation of security, economic, and social structures in the Middle East and North Africa has taken on a new dimension. This transitional period represents a difficult challenge for the powers outside the Middle East that are involved in the region: as “third parties,” there are substantial limitations to the amount of influence that they can exert, yet they have a vital interest in the establishment of peace and stability in the region. The European Union is also caught up in this conflicting situation. A comprehensive program in the Mediterranean region has been launched by the EU to support the progress of changes in the Middle East. This book identifies the factors that stand in the way of constructing stable political and economic structures.