Defense and Security
At least nine nations are believed to have nuclear weapons: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, Pakistan, India, North Korea and Israel. Other nations may have nuclear weapons or are working towards them, most notably Iran. At the height of the Cold War in 1985, there were believed to be 65,000 nuclear weapons in the world. As a result of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and unilateral decisions by some countries, this number has been reduced to about 20,000.
Heinz-Peter Bader / Reuters - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Director General Yukiya Amano addresses the press after a IAEA Board of Governors meeting in Vienna, Austria, on November 26, 2015.
An unsatisfying outcome on Iran's past nuclear activities is no reason to derail the nuclear deal
December 1, 2015, Robert Einhorn
Robert Einhorn argues that the lack of a definitive verdict from the IAEA on Iran's past nuclear activities should not derail the JCPOA. He writes that the agreement's robust verification tools, coupled with a credible threat to thwart breakout, will ensure that Iran does not acquire a nuclear weapon, even in the absence of clarity regarding Tehran's past nuclear activities.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
November 18, 2015, Steven Pifer
Interview | Iran Review
November 7, 2015, Suzanne Maloney
September 28, 2015
September 11, 2015, Suzanne Maloney and Fred Dews
September 9, 2015, William A. Galston
September 9, 2015, Fred Dews
September 9, 2015
September 8, 2015
Opinion | Moment Magazine
September/October 2015, Jeremy Shapiro
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Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Director, The Intelligence Project
Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, Center for Middle East Policy, Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence
Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence, Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Initiative
Stephen P. Cohen
Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, The India Project
View All Experts on Nuclear Weapons »
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