Defense and Security
At least nine nations are believed to have nuclear weapons – the United States, Russia, England, France, China, Pakistan, India, North Korea and Israel. Other nations may have nuclear weapons or are working towards them, most notably Iran. At the height of the Cold War in 1985, there were believed to be 65,000 nuclear weapons in the world. As a result of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and unilateral decisions by some countries, this number has been reduced to about 20,000.
Demonstrators call on the U.S. to take measures against Russia's recent actions in Ukraine, in front of the White House in Washington (REUTERS/Jonathan Ernst).
Russia is Honoring Neither the Letter Nor the Law of the Budapest Memorandum
March 7, 2014, Steven Pifer
Russia has failed to fulfill its obligations under 1994's Budapest Memorandum, in which Ukraine exchanged its nuclear weapons for Russia's recognition of its sovereignty. Steven Pifer writes that the United States' protection of this agreement is vital to protecting the value of security assurances as leverage for resolving future nuclear proliferation challenges.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Opinion | CNN
March 4, 2014, Steven Pifer
February 27, 2014, Ariana Rowberry
Opinion | The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs
February 4, 2014, Steven Pifer
Opinion | Foreign Policy
January 31, 2014, Steven Pifer
January 23, 2014
BIG BETS & BLACK SWANS - Memorandum to the President
January 23, 2014, Steven Pifer
January 23, 2014, Suzanne Maloney
January 23, 2014, Jonathan D. Pollack and Richard C. Bush III
January 23, 2014, Robert Einhorn and Kenneth M. Pollack
Opinion | The National Interest
January 21, 2014, Kemal Kirişci and Rob Keane
View All Research on Nuclear Weapons ›Show 10 More
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Director, The Intelligence Project
Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, Saban Center for Middle East Policy, Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence
Stephen P. Cohen
Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, The India Project
James E. Goodby
Nonresident Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, Center for East Asia Policy Studies
View All Experts on Nuclear Weapons »
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