Editor’s note: In an excerpt in
from their new book
Cybersecurity and Cyberwar: What Everyone Needs to Know
, co-authors Peter W. Singer and Allan Friedman analyze the real meaning of “security” in modern cybersecurity practice and its three basic goals: confidentiality, integrity and availability.
There’s an old joke in the security industry about how to secure any computer: Just unplug it.
The problem is not only that the joke is becoming outdated in an era of wireless and rechargeable devices, but once a machine is plugged in, there are practically an infinite number of ways its use might deviate from its intended purpose. This deviation is a malfunction. When the difference between the expected behavior and actual behavior is caused by an adversary (as opposed to simple error or accident), then the malfunction is a “security” problem.
Security isn’t just the notion of being free from danger, as it is commonly conceived, but is associated with the presence of an adversary. In that way, it’s a lot like war or sex; you need at least two sides to make it real. Things may break and mistakes may be made, but a cyber problem only becomes a cybersecurity issue if an adversary seeks to gain something from the activity, whether to obtain private information, undermine the system, or prevent its legitimate use.
To illustrate, in 2011 the Federal Aviation Administration ordered nearly half of US airspace shut down and more than 600 planes grounded. It seemed like a repeat of how American airspace was shut down after the 9/11 attacks. But this incident wasn’t a security issue, as there was no one behind it. The cause was a software glitch in a single computer at the Atlanta headquarters building. Take the same situation and change the glitch to a hack: that’s a security issue.
The canonical goals of security in an information environment result from this notion of a threat. Traditionally, there are three goals: Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability, sometimes called the “CIA triad.”
Confidentiality refers to keeping data private. Privacy is not just some social or political goal. In a digital world, information has value. Protecting that information is thus of paramount importance. Not only must internal secrets and sensitive personal data be safeguarded, but transactional data can reveal important details about the relationships of firms or individuals. Confidentiality is supported by technical tools such as encryption and access control as well as legal protections.
Integrity is the most subtle but maybe the most important part of the classic information security triumvirate. Integrity means that the system and the data in it have not been improperly altered or changed without authorization. It is not just a matter of trust. There must be confidence that the system will be both available and behave as expected.
Integrity’s subtlety is what makes it a frequent target for the most sophisticated attackers. They will often first subvert the mechanisms that try to detect attacks, in the same way that complex diseases like HIV-AIDS go after the human body’s natural defenses. For instance, the Stuxnet attack (which we explore later in Part II) was so jarring because the compromised computers were telling their Iranian operators that they were functioning normally, even as the Stuxnet virus was sabotaging them. How can we know whether a system is functioning normally if we depend on that system to tell us about its current function?
Availability means being able to use the system as anticipated. Here again, it’s not merely the system going down that makes availability a security concern; software errors and “blue screens of death” happen to our computers all the time. It becomes a security issue when and if someone tries to exploit the lack of availability in some way. An attacker could do this either by depriving users of a system that they depend on (such as how the loss of GPS would hamper military units in a conflict) or by merely threatening the loss of a system, known as a “ransomware” attack. Examples of such ransoms range from small-scale hacks on individual bank accounts all the way to global blackmail attempts against gambling websites before major sporting events like the World Cup and Super Bowl.
[Stabilization is] difficult to do in Iraq and especially Syria because no one wants the U.S. to put lots of forces on the ground to be doing that and locals will struggle to do it well.