The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) invited Steven Pifer to the OSCE “security days” forum in Vienna on June 25 to make a presentation on conventional arms control and confidence- and security-building measures (CSBMs). Several agreements cover these issues in the OSCE area. The Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) Treaty limited NATO and Warsaw Pact armaments. An adapted CFE Treaty was negotiated in 1999 to impose national limits in place of bloc-to-bloc limits (since the Warsaw Pact had disbanded) but has not entered into force. The Vienna Document on CSBMs provides for measures such as information exchanges and notifications of military exercises that exceed certain thresholds. The Open Skies Treaty allows overflights of countries to observe military installations and formations. Pifer touches these agreements in his talk.
[On President Moon Jae-in's definition of a 'red line' for North Korea] The only way we will know definitively that North Korea actually has a nuclear-armed missile that works is to demonstrate this capability...It would be considered an act of war which others would see as justifying preemption, and retaliation if preemption or missile defense did not work.