IDP Laws and Policies: Angola
Norms on the Resettlement of Internally Displaced Populations (2001)
Purpose: To establish the rules governing the resettlement process of internally displaced persons and refugees.
Responsibilities: Responsibility for the resettlement and return of populations rests with the provincial governments that will oversee the process through the Provincial Humanitarian Coordination Group and the reactivated Subgroup on Displaced Persons and Refugees (Art. 1). The specific competencies of the provincial governments are described in Article 2. In addition, humanitarian agencies are responsible for providing assistance in several sectors including social assistance (Art. 8), water and sanitation (Art. 9) and food (Art. 11).
Content: The Norms require that land be identified and secured to allow for the return and resettlement of the displaced and that returnees be provided with a minimum level of assistance. This assistance includes: at least half a hectare of arable land in sites cleared for mines and with proper sanitation facilities (Arts. 3, 4); social assistance (Art. 8); water and sanitation (Art. 9); ‘resettlement kits’, including seeds and tools (Art. 10); and food (Art. 11). Provincial and national entities are called upon to establish and maintain a presence in the sites of resettlement and return in order to monitor progress (Arts. 6, 12).
Other provisions of note include:
- the Norms were the first national instrument on internal displacement to be developed with reference to the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement;
- emphasis on voluntary nature of return (Art. 5);
- consultation with traditional authorities regarding resettlement (Art. 5).
Standard Operational Procedures for the Enforcement of the “Norms on the Resettlement of Displaced Populations” (2002)
Purpose: As recommended by the Representative of the UN Secretary-General on internally displaced persons following his mission in 2000, the implementing regulations known as Standard Operational Procedures were intended to be legally binding and to ensure implementation of the Norms.
Responsibilities: The process of resettlement and return is to be lead by the National Commission for Social and Productive Reintegration of Demobilized Personnel and Displaced Populations in conjunction with the Provincial Commissions and Ad Hoc Group for Technical and Administrative Support (Art. 3). The Ad Hoc Group is also responsible for monitoring the resettlement and return process (Art. 20).
Content: The Procedures set out the responsibilities of institutions charged with organizing and monitoring return and resettlement (Chs. 2, 5). They establish the substantive assistance to be received by the internally displaced, including the provision of land, food, health care and education, as well as the conditions in which return and resettlement are to take place, particularly as relating to security, water and sanitation (Ch. 4). The provincial entity is responsible, among other tasks, for establishing a registration procedure and facilitating family reunification (Art. 11).
Other provisions of note include:
- Definition of ‘displaced persons’ in accordance with Guiding Principles (Art. 1);
- Extension of Norms to refugees as well as internally displaced persons (Art. 2);
- Participation of displaced communities and women (Arts. 7, 9(2), 14(2)(c));
- Information-sharing and discussion with displaced populations (Art. 9(1));
- Engagement with traditional authorities (Art. 10(1)(d));
- Issuance of personal identification documents (Art. 12);
- Education for children who did not receive the education standard for their age (Art. 18 (1)(n)).