U.S. Nuclear Weapons Cost Study Project

This project was completed in August 1998 and resulted in the book Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Since 1940 edited by Stephen I. Schwartz. These project pages are only occassionally updated and should be considered historical.

Polaris A-1 Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile



On July 20, 1960, the Navy conducted the first successful full-scale test of the Polaris weapons system, launching two Polaris A-1 SLBMs from the submerged USS George Washington about 30 miles (48 kilometers) off of Cape Canaveral, Florida.


Credit: U.S. Navy