Do Barriers to Candidacy Reduce Political Competition? Evidence from a Bachelor’’s Degree Requirement for Legislators in Pakistan

Madiha Afzal

Editor’s Note: A version of this paper is published in Public Choice (registration required) »


In the 2002 election, candidates for Pakistan’s federal legislature had to possess at least
a bachelor’s degree. This policy disquali…ed 60 out of the 207 incumbent legislators from
running for election again. Using a di¤erence-in-di¤erences approach with panel data on all
electoral constituencies in Pakistan, I …nd that this ballot access restriction does not a¤ect
political competition across all constituencies with disquali…ed incumbents equally. Stronger
political competition is de…ned as a larger number of candidates contesting election, a smaller
vote share and vote margin for the winning candidate, and a less concentrated candidate …eld,
as measured by a Her…ndahl-Hirschman index (HHI) of vote shares. Competition declined
signi…cantly in constituencies where the disquali…ed incumbent belonged to a small party and
where literacy levels were lower (signifying a smaller pool of substitute candidates). However,
political competition increased in areas where the disquali…ed incumbent was stronger in
terms of his winning vote margin.