According to official sources, Russian President Vladimir Putin holds a degree of candidate of economic science (incorrectly described on the English-language version of his website as a “Ph.D in economics”), awarded by the St. Petersburg Mining Institute in 1996. Putin never actually attended the institute, however, and the topic of the dissertation he submitted and defended was one in which he had no previous background. With the aim of exploring the mystery, Brookings researchers Clifford Gaddy and Igor Danchenko in 2005 obtained a copy of the previously inaccessible dissertation and examined its contents.
On March 30, 2006, the Brookings Center on the United States and Europe hosted an event in which Gaddy and Danchenko revealed the findings of their research. They clarified some of the unknowns about the document and discussed its relevance to Putin’s views on governance and the economy. They also presented evidence of extensive plagiarism in the dissertation.
Clifford Gaddy and Igor Danchenko examined Vladimir Putin’s dissertation on strategic planning in the resource sector, allegations of plagiarism, and how it shaped Putin’s attitudes toward economy strategy.
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[Pakistan has seen showdowns between civilian leaders and the military before, but nothing like this.] I think we're in an unprecedented moment in terms of the kind of confrontation, the kind of potential turmoil it could generate. That is what we're watching for in the next few weeks.
[The crackdown between the government and Mr. Khan appears to have heightened Mr. Khan’s popularity, bolstering his claims that the military establishment conspired to topple his government in April.] What differentiates this moment from previous moments is the amount of sheer street power Khan has. And street power makes a difference in Pakistan even when it does not translate into electoral votes.