China was the single largest infrastructure financier in 11 African countries between 2009 and 2012.
African cities are different. They are too often built around consuming the rents extracted from natural resources.
"[T]he best U.S.-Philippines alliance would be one where the benefits are clearly recognized by the public and the citizens of both countries. [Duterte's transition from local mayor to president and international figure has brought about a] change in the consequences of rhetoric. That shift has been rocky in terms of the effects on U.S.-Philippines relations."