The United States is engaged in an ambitious agenda of defense transformation that is revolutionizing the way the U.S. military organizes, trains, fights, and even thinks about conflict. What impact will this have on America’s European allies? How can NATO transform itself for the 21st century? This volume examines the implications of U.S. defense transformation for NATO, particularly how America and its allies can close the “transatlantic transformation gap”—a looming breach in strategic orientation, spending priorities, and conceptual and operational planning and training. It examines European approaches to defense transformations and charts the progress made by the Alliance from Kosovo to Kabul—while showing how far it still has to go. The authors approach the issue of NATO transformation from different perspectives. As a whole, however, their argument is straightforward. If Alliance transformation is to be successful it must include, but also go beyond, the purely military dimension. NATO must transform its scope and strategic rationale, its capabilities, its partnerships—its very ways of doing business. They offer a range of policy prescriptions for the NATO Summit in Istanbul and beyond. Contributors include Richard L. Kugler, Rob de Wijk, George Robertson, Yves Boyer, Jeffrey P. Bialos, Andrew James, Hans Binnendijk, Manfred Engelhardt and Stuart L. Koehl.