This book examines the complex roles and evolving strategies of trade unions during fifteen years of economic and social transition. It explores what strategies and policies unions in this region need in order to curb negative trends and strengthen their capacities and functions within the new industrial relations systems. Case studies from Hungary, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Slovenia reveal some of the differences and commonalities in trade union choices, processes, and outcomes of action. The book also includes an analysis from a European dimension and looks at major issues stemming from the European Union integration process for labor movement in Central and Eastern Europe. This volume aims to stimulate debate and contribute to future trade union efforts as they build their capacities, representation, and influence in the region. Contributors include Dimitrina Dimitrova (ILO subregional office for Central and Eastern Europe, Budapest), Grigor Gradev (European Trade Union Institute, Brussels), Vassil Kirov (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences), László Neumann (National Employment Office, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and Eötvös Lóránd University, Budapest), Krastyo Petkovis (University of National and World Economy, Sofia, and member of Bulgarian Parliament), Miroslav Stanojevic (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia), Milica Uvalic (University of Perugia, Italy, and European Association for Comparative Economic Studies), and Jacques Vilrokx (Vrije Universiteit Brussel).