This book reviews recent trends, reforms and lessons learned in the OECD countries as they relate to aging. Recent reform agendas have been driven mainly by fiscal factors-to adjust systems such as pensions and long-term care to the aging of the baby boom generation. This publication finds that a new policy agenda appears to be emerging, and it is likely to be centered on reversing the recent trends towards longer lifetime years to be spent in retirement and fewer lifetime years in employment. It is associated with likely trends towards a more diversified system of retirement income in most OECD countries-with more reliance on private pensions and a likely reversal of trends away from earnings as a source of income among older people. The publication suggests that the scale of the changes that are taking place and the shape of this new policy agenda could result in a transformation of the institution of retirement and its financing. Familiar policy debates-such as the balance between public and private pensions-may need to be recast to take account of the likely future growth in the role of earnings in the retirement income system.