These volumes present data from the OECD’s Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2006 survey of scholastic performance in 57 countries. The survey offers a detailed picture of learning among 15-year-old students in science, while also assessing skill in reading and mathematics. It presents data not only on students’ achievement but also on their attitudes toward science, their awareness of career and life prospects offered by science qualifications, and the learning opportunities and environments offered by their schools. PISA 2006 examines how student performance varies by such factors as gender, socioeconomic background, and migration status. It provides insight into the factors that influence the development of knowledge and skills at home and at school, how these interact, and what the implications are for policy development. Finally, it sheds light on those countries that succeed in achieving high performance standards while providing an equitable distribution of learning opportunities.