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Non-Standard Forms of Employment Around the World

Trends and Implications

By International Labor Office

Non-standard forms of employment—including temporary work, part-time work, temporary agency work and other multi-party employment arrangements, disguised employment relationships, and dependent self-employment—have become a contemporary feature of labor markets the world over. This report documents the incidence and trends of non-standard forms of employment across different countries of the world and explores the reasons behind this phenomenon, including increased firm competition, shifting organizational practices of firms, and changes and gaps in the regulation of work. It assesses the implications for workers’ pay, income security, and other conditions of work, as well as the effects on firms, labor markets, and society in general. The report reviews international, regional, and national regulation of non-standard forms of employment, identifying differences across countries as well as promising legislative responses for ensuring decent work. It also analyses other policy responses such as strengthening workers’ associations and collective bargaining, redesigning social protection systems, and further policies for addressing labor market governance. The ultimate objective is to provide guidance on practices that can help ensure protection of workers, sustainable enterprises, and well-functioning labor markets.

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