Bioscience is a critical innovation driver across many economic sectors and a key bellwether of European, North American, and Asian competitiveness. In this volume, two leading scholars examine the competitive position and performance of pharmaceutical companies and industries in Europe, North America, and Japan, as well as China, India, and other emergent economies. Innovation and Industrial Leadership is the most comprehensive and up-to-date analysis available of the global pharmaceutical industry. Pammolli and Riccaboni explain the strengths and weaknesses of the pharmaceutical markets in major global markets. They examine market share and market size, compare employment and productivity levels, look at innovation trends and the international migration of talent, and examine the globalization strategies of leading companies and nations. The authors compare U.S. and European innovation systems and trace how China and India are accumulating scientific and technological capabilities in the life sciences and in pharmaceuticals. The book reveals that Europe is lagging behind the U.S. in its ability to generate, organize, and sustain innovation processes in pharmaceuticals and resulting productivity growth. The authors advance a concrete agenda for Europe to regain competitiveness and call for renewed transatlantic dialogue on the political economy of the pharmaceutical industry, on trade policy, and on protection of intellectual property rights.