Much of the literature on comparative industrial relations has focused on industrialized countries. This edited volume focuses on a group of emerging and transition countries, examining the development of industrial relations institutions in Brazil, China, India, South Africa, and Turkey. These emerging economies face similar challenges, including the increasing fragmentation of labor by contractual status, informality, and widening income disparities. There have been significant attempts by the state and social actors to build or revitalize industrial relations institutions and foster tripartite policy dialogue to respond to these labor market challenges. Most have also introduced changes to labor market policies and regulations. While there is considerable diversity between countries in respect of the evolution of labor relations institutions, there are also interesting commonalities. The volume also examines a related issue with important implications for inclusive development: the role these labor relations institutions have played in shaping economic and social policies in the respective countries.