The European Union has entered a crucial stage in energy policy. After the adoption of legally binding targets to address climate change, energy security, and competitiveness, the 27 member states are now turning their attention toward implementation of these targets. However, with an unfinished internal market for gas and electricity and with member states continuing to focus on bilateral energy relationships with supplier countries, the EU is still at the very beginning of a common EU energy policy. This book contributes to the debate about an emerging “first generation” EU energy policy. It identifies policy areas that are expected to benefit most from deeper EU integration—where the European added-value is expected to be greatest—and offers recommendations on how such integration could be achieved. In particular, the book calls for the development of better indicators against which to assess member state energy policies in order to ensure coherence at the EU and member state levels.