The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) constitute an ambitious agenda to significantly improve the human condition. The goals set clear targets for reducing poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation, and discrimination against women. Realizing the Millennium Development Goals in the years ahead will be a particularly challenging task in sub-Saharan Africa, in light of weak and often faltering macroeconomic performance, vulnerability to negative climatic shocks, fertility rates and population growth that outpace those of other regions, and a devastating combination of poverty, continued civil conflict, and the effects of HIV/AIDS. This book provides empirical estimates of current progress in African countries and reviews the various obstacles standing in the way, the roles and responsibilities of national actors and their partners, and the advocacy, monitoring, and evaluation aspects of MDG implementation. The authors emphasize the need for changes in public policy and for action in both the developed and developing countries.