Sandra E. Black was formerly a nonresident senior fellow with the Economic Studies program. She served as a Member of Obama's Council of Economic Advisers from August 2015-January 2017. She received her B.A. from UC Berkeley and her Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University. Since that time, she worked as an Economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, an Assistant, Associate, and ultimately Professor in the Department of Economics at UCLA, and held the Audre and Bernard Rapoport Centennial Chair in Economics and Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin before arriving at Columbia University in 2019. Her research focuses on the role of early life experiences on the long-run outcomes of children, as well as issues of gender and discrimination.