Defense and Security
At least nine nations are believed to have nuclear weapons: the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, Pakistan, India, North Korea and Israel. Other nations may have nuclear weapons or are working towards them, most notably Iran. At the height of the Cold War in 1985, there were believed to be 65,000 nuclear weapons in the world. As a result of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and unilateral decisions by some countries, this number has been reduced to about 20,000.
REUTERS/Carolyn Kaster/Pool - (L-R) Germany's Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle, China's Foreign Minister Wang Yi, Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, and France's Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius greet and shake hands with each other at the Palais des Nations in Geneva November 24, 2013.
An Open Letter to the Iranian Negotiating Team
August 19, 2014, Robert Einhorn
As Iran and the P5+1 countries prepare for their first round of nuclear negotiations in the four-month extension period, Robert Einhorn, a senior fellow with the Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Initiative and the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence, wrote an open letter to the Iranian negotiating team which was originally published on Saturday, August 16, on Iranian Diplomacy.
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Testimony | House Armed Services Committee
July 17, 2014, Steven Pifer
Testimony | House Committee on Foreign Affairs
March 21, 2012, Steven Pifer
Testimony | Senate Armed Services Committee
July 27, 2010, Steven Pifer
Testimony | House Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs
December 15, 2009, Suzanne Maloney
Testimony | Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs
July 30, 2009, Suzanne Maloney
July 22, 2009, Suzanne Maloney
Testimony | House Subcommittees on Asia, the Pacific and the Global Environment and on Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Trade
June 17, 2009, Richard C. Bush III
February 25, 2009, Steven Pifer
Testimony | Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism
June 13, 2008, Daniel L. Byman
Testimony | Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs
June 12, 2008, Stephen P. Cohen
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Brookings Doha Center
Doha Ritz Carlton, Doha, Qatar
Director, The Intelligence Project
Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, Center for Middle East Policy, Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence
Stephen P. Cohen
Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, The India Project
Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy, Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence, Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Initiative
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