Opportunity 08: Independent Ideas for Our Next President

Opportunity 08 - Contributors

The Brookings Institution conducts research to inform the public debate, not to advance a partisan agenda. Policy experts who contributed to this project have served in both Democratic and Republican administrations, and those with congressional experience have worked on both sides of the aisle. Other authors were drawn from academia and the Foreign Service.

Contributors listed by last name: A-D | E-H | I-P | Q-T | U-Z


Henry J. AaronHenry J. Aaron
Henry J. Aaron is a senior fellow at Brookings. He is an expert on health care cost, financing, and rationing as well as budget policy and politics. He served as an assistant secretary at the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare under President Carter, and is a member of the Institute of Medicine.

Hady AmrHady Amr
Hady Amr is a fellow at Brookings and is the author of the 2004 Brookings analysis paper "The Need to Communicate: How to Improve U.S. Public Diplomacy with the Islamic World". He has served in the U.S. Department of Defense Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies. He was senior advisor to the World Economic Forum Council of 100 Leaders on Western-Islamic World Relations.

William AntholisWilliam Antholis 
William Antholis is managing director of the Brookings Institution. He has worked on foreign security and economic policy at the National Security Council and the State Department, and was director of studies at the German Marshall Fund of the United States.

John C. AustinJohn C. Austin
John C. Austin is a nonresident senior fellow at Brookings. He is also a senior fellow with the University of Michigan's School of Education. He is an expert on various topics that include international and national economics, higher education and workforce policy, and urban policy. His previous positions include policy director for the Michigan Lieutenant Governor's Commission on Higher Education and Economic Growth.

Jeffrey A. BaderJeffrey A. Bader
Jeffrey A. Bader is director of the John L. Thornton China Center at Brookings. Bader, a former ambassador and senior official at the State Department, National Security Council, and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, has three decades of expertise on China and East Asia.

Peter BerkowitzPeter Berkowitz
Peter Berkowitz is a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and an associate professor of law at George Mason University Law School. His research focuses on the interplay of law, ethics, and politics in modern society. His current research is concerned with the material and moral preconditions of liberal democracy in America and abroad.

Robert BixbyRobert Bixby
Robert Bixby is executive director of The Concord Coalition, a nonpartisan, grassroots organization dedicated to fiscal responsibility. He had practiced law and served as the chief staff attorney of the Court of Appeals of Virginia.

Lael BrainardLael Brainard
Lael Brainard is a Brookings vice president and director of the Global Economy and Development Program, and holder of the Bernard L. Schwartz chair in International Economics. Brainard, a former international economic adviser to President Clinton, directs Brookings's work relating to global trade, finance, and development. Brainard was part of a select team advising the president on issues including China's accession to the World Trade Organization.

Richard C. Bush IIIRichard C. Bush III
Richard Bush, a Brookings senior fellow, is director of the Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies. His expertise includes Northeast Asia, Taiwan, and U.S.-China relations. He was chairman and managing director of the American Institute in Taiwan. Bush also worked on Asian-Pacific issues for the Democratic staff of the House Foreign Affairs Committee.

Cali CarlinCali Carlin 
Cali Carlin currently works for CBS News in New York. Previously she was working for Channel One, a news program shown daily to middle and high school classrooms across the country, reaching 7 million students. She has volunteered with organizations directed at helping youth.

Stephen P. CohenStephen P. Cohen
Stephen P. Cohen is a senior fellow at Brookings. He is an expert on India; Pakistan; South Asian security and proliferation. He was a member of the Policy Planning Staff of the U.S. Department of State, where he dealt with South Asia. In 2004, he was named one of the five hundred most influential people in foreign policy by the World Affairs Councils of America.

Robert CrandallRobert Crandall
Robert Crandall is a Brookings senior fellow. He is an expert on antitrust and regulatory policy; the auto and steel industries; and telecommunications. Crandall was the former deputy director of the C ouncil on Wage and Price Stability during the Ford and Carter administrations. He has been a consultant to the Environmental Protection Agency, the Antitrust Division of the Federal Trade Commission, and the Treasury Department.

Kenneth W. DamKenneth W. Dam
Kenneth W. Dam is a Brookings senior fellow, Economic Studies, and Max Pam Professor Emeritus of American and Foreign Law and senior lecturer, University of Chicago Law School. He is an expert on economic and U.S. foreign policy; national security; and science and technology. Dam served as deputy secretary in the Treasury Department in the current Bush Administration and deputy secretary in the State Department during the Reagan Administration.

Paul DimondPaul Dimond
Paul Dimond is senior counsel at Miller Canfield. He practices in the areas of public law, business services and finance, venture funding and start-ups, real estate finance, and product litigation and torts. In 1993, he was appointed by President Clinton to serve in the White House as special assistant to the President for Economic Policy. In 2003, Governor Jennifer Granholm appointed Dimond to her Council of Economic Advisors and named him chair of its Business Growth and Entrepreneurship Committee.

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Jonathan Elkind
Jonathan Elkind is a nonresident senior fellow at Brookings and Principal at EastLink Consulting, LLC. He is an expert in energy security, Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union. Elkind, formerly Director for Russian, Ukrainian, and Eurasian Affairs within the National Security Council and Assistant to the Secretary of Energy, has contributed to several books on U.S and Eurasian energy security.

William FrenzelWilliam Frenzel
William Frenzel is a Brookings guest scholar. He retired from the U.S. House of Representatives in 1991 after serving his Minnesota constituency for 20 years. Frenzel was the ranking minority member on the House Budget Committee and a member of its tax policy committee. He served as special advisor to President Clinton for NAFTA, and on the Social Security Commission convened by President Bush.

William G. GaleWilliam G. Gale
William G. Gale is a Brookings vice president and director of the Economic Studies Program. He also is co-director of the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center and director of the Retirement Security Project. Gale is an expert on tax policy, budget and fiscal policy; and public and private pensions. He served as a senior staff economist for the Council of Economic Advisers under President George H.W. Bush.

William A. GalstonWilliam A. Galston
William A. Galston, a senior fellow at Brookings, is an expert in domestic policy, political campaigns, and elections. He served as deputy assistant for domestic policy to President Clinton, and directed national efforts on civic renewal led by Sen. Sam Nunn and Secretary William Bennett. Galston also served as an advisor to presidential candidates Walter Mondale and Al Gore.

Mark Gitenstein
Mark Gitenstein is a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. He has practiced law in Washington D.C. since 1989. He also served on the staff of the Senate Intelligence Committee (1975-1978) and as lead Democratic Counsel and then Chief Counsel of the Senate Judiciary Committee (1981-1989).

Philip H. GordonPhilip H. Gordon
Philip H. Gordon is a senior fellow at Brookings. He is an expert on U.S. foreign policy, Europe, Middle East, NATO, and Turkey. He is the former director for European affairs at the National Security Council. 

Michael GreenMichael Green
Michael Green is a senior adviser at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and an associate professor of international relations at Georgetown University. At the National Security Council, he was special assistant to the President for national security affairs and senior director for Asian affairs from January 2004 to December 2005. He also served in the U.S. Department of Defense as senior adviser to the Office of Asia Pacific Affairs. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Institute for International Security Studies.

Ron HaskinsRon Haskins
Ron Haskins is a senior fellow and co-director of the Center on Children and Families. He is an expert on welfare, preschool, foster care, and poverty. Haskins was a Republican Congressional staff director instrumental in the welfare reform law of 1996, and served President Bush as Senior Advisor for Welfare Policy.

Stephen HessStephen Hess
Stephen Hess is a Brookings senior fellow emeritus. His areas of expertise includes elections, media, political campaigns, political parties, politics, presidency, and White House organization. Hess served in the administrations of President Eisenhower and Nixon. He also was Chief of Staff to Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan of New York. Hess is currently a Distinguished Research Professor of Media and Public Affairs at George Washington University.

G. William HoaglandG. William Hoagland
G. William Hoagland is vice president of public policy at CIGNA Corporation. A policy adviser and top budget aide to former Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist (R-Tenn.), Hoagland is an expert on federal budget policy, income security, and food and nutrition policy. He served as staff director of the Senate Budget Committee, special assistant to the Agriculture Secretary, and staff economist at Congressional Budget Office.

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Karl F. Inderfurth 
Karl F. Inderfurth is the John O. Rankin Professor of the Practice of International Affairs and director of the Graduate Program in International Affairs at George Washington University. Inderfurth has served in multiple positions in government, including the U.S. State Department and as deputy U.S. representative on the U.N. Security Council.

Martin IndykMartin Indyk
Martin Indyk, a former U.S. Ambassador to Israel and assistant secretary of state for Near East Affairs, is a senior fellow and director of the Saban Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings. He is an expert on U.S. policy in the Middle East, U.S.-Israeli relations, and the Arab-Israeli peace process. Indyk was a Special Assistant to President Clinton and Senior Director for the Middle East on the National Security Council.

Frederick W. KaganFrederick W. Kagan
Frederick W. Kagan is resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. He specializes in defense issues, the American mi l itary, defense transformation, the defense budget, and defense strategy and warfare. A military historian who has taught at West Point, Kagan advised the Bush administration on its approach to the Iraq war.

Bruce KatzBruce Katz
Bruce Katz is Brookings vice president and founding director of the Metropolitan Policy Program. His expertise includes major demographic, market, development and governance trends affecting cities and metropolitan areas. Katz was chief of staff to former U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Secretary Henry G. Cisneros, and staff director of the Senate Subcommittee on Housing and Urban Affairs.

J. Robert Kerrey
J. Robert Kerrey is president of the New School in New York City and a co-chair of The Concord Coalition. He previously served Nebraska as Governor from 1983-87 and U.S. Senator for two terms, from 1989 to 2001. He also served on several congressionally chartered commissions, including the Kerrey-Danforth Bipartisan Commission on Entitlement and Tax Reform, and the Breaux-Thomas National Bipartisan Commission on the Future of Medicare.;

Amy LiuAmy Liu
Amy Liu is the Deputy Director and co-founder of the Metropolitan Policy Program. She is an expert on Post-Hurricane Katrina Gulf Coast Recovery, state-based policy efforts, and building successful regions. Liu was Special Assistant to Department of Housing and Urban Development Secretary Henry Cisneros. Liu also served on the Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee.

Colonel Thomas F. Lynch
Colonel Thomas Lynch received his PhD in International Relations from Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of International & Political Affairs. Commissioned in 1982, Colonel Lynch spent his initial years in Korea and Germany. Since January 2004, Colonel Lynch has been deployed across the Greater Middle East and Southwest Asia on duties involving Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

Sean MaloneySean Maloney
Sean Maloney is executive vice president of Intel Corporation, general manager of the Sales and Marketing Group, and chief sales and marketing officer. He has been with Intel since 1982. Maloney began his Intel career in its European headquarters where he spent nine years, first as Intel United Kingdom's manager of applications engineering, then as country manager of Intel UK, and director of marketing for Intel Europe.

Thomas E. MannThomas E. Mann
Thomas E. Mann, a Brookings senior fellow, holds the W. Averell Harriman Chair in Governance Studies. Mann's expertise includes parties, elections, and Congress. He has conducted polls for congressional candidates and overseen national public opinion studies. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Michael McDonaldMichael McDonald
Michael McDonald is a Non-Resident Senior Fellow at Brookings and an Associate Professor at George Mason University. His areas of expertise includes election administration, polling, redistricting, U.S. campaigns and elections, and voter turnout.

Michael J. MissalMichael J. Missal
Michael J. Missal, a partner in the law firm Kirkpatrick & Lockhart Preston Gates Ellis LLP. He is an expert in securities enforcement matters, internal investigations, securities litigations and arbitrations and broker-dealer regulation. He served as Lead Counsel to the Examiner in the 2004 WorldCom bankruptcy proceeding. In 2007, the Department of Justice appointed Missal as Examiner in the bankruptcy proceedings of subprime loan specialist New Century Financial Corp.

Patricia MulroyPatricia Mulroy
Patricia Mulroy oversees the operations of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and the Southern Nevada Water Authority, a regional agency responsible for acquiring, treating, and delivering water for Southern Nevada. She was a principal architect of the water authority, which has served as a model for other Western agencies since its creation in 1991.

Ron NessenRon Nessen
Ron Nessen is Journalist in Residence at Brookings. He was Press Secretary to President Gerald R. Ford. A former journalist, Nessen was a writer and editor at United Press International and national correspondent for NBC News. He also served as vice president for the world radio network News of the Mutual Broadcasting System.

Joseph P. NewhouseJoseph P. Newhouse
Joseph P. Newhouse has been the John D. MacArthur Professor of Health Policy and Management at Harvard University since 1988. Dr. Newhouse is also the Editor of the Journal of Health Economics, which he founded in 1981. He is also a faculty research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.

Michael E. O'HanlonMichael E. O'Hanlon
Michael E. O'Hanlon is a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution and specializes in Iraq, North Korea, homeland security, the use of military force, and other defense issues. O'Hanlon advised members of Congress on military spending as a defense budget analyst. O'Hanlon is the director of Opportunity 08.

Carlos PascualCarlos Pascual
Carlos Pascual is a Brookings vice president and director of the Foreign Policy Studies Program. Pascual most recently served as Secretary Rice's lead adviser to create a new U.S. government capacity to manage stabilization and reconstruction in failed and conflict-ridden areas of the globe. A former Ambassador to Ukraine and Senior Director on the National Security Council staff, his areas of expertise include post conflict stabilization, international security policy, nonproliferation, economic development, and regions such as Europe, Russia and Ukraine.

Peter G. PetersonPeter G. Peterson
Peter G. Peterson is chairman and co-founder of The Blackstone Group and also serves as the president of The Concord Coalition. He served as Secretary of Commerce in the Nixon administration and was also named by President Clinton as a member of the Bipartisan Commission on Entitlement and Tax Reform.

Kenneth M. PollackKenneth M. Pollack
Kenneth M. Pollack, senior fellow, is director of research at the Saban Center for Middle East Policy. A former CIA analyst, Pollack is an expert on Middle East politics and military analysis. He has also served on the National Security Council staff during the Clinton and Bush Administrations. He currently teaches security and military analysis courses at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service.

John PorterJohn Porter
John Porter, a partner in the law firm Hogan & Hartson and a former member of Congress and the Illinois House, is a member of the Board of Trustees at Brookings. Porter is an expert on health law and education matters, including Administrative and regulatory, international, legislative strategy, and education and health policy. He was Republican chairman of the House Appropriations subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education.

Hugh B. PriceHugh B. Price
Hugh B. Price is a Brookings senior fellow. He is an expert on education; civil rights and equal opportunity; and criminal justice. Before joining Brookings, Price served as president and chief executive officer of the National Urban League. Price's 40-year career spans journalism, philanthropy, the law, and social advocacy. He was the first executive director of the Black Coalition of New Haven and a member of the editorial board of The New York Times.

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Barry RabeBarry Rabe
Barry Rabe is a nonresident senior fellow at Brookings and a professor in the Gerald Ford School of Public Policy at the University of Michigan. His current research examines the evolving role of American states and Canadian provinces in climate and energy policy. His most recent Brookings book is Statehouse and Greenhouse.

Susan RiceSusan E. Rice
Susan Rice is a senior fellow at Brookings and a a former assistant secretary of state for African Affairs. Her current research focuses on U.S. foreign policy, weak and failing states, the implications of global poverty and transnational security threats.

Bruce RiedelBruce Riedel
A former CIA officer, Bruce Riedel focuses on political transition, terrorism and conflict resolution. He was a senior advisor to three U.S. presidents on Middle East and South Asian issues.

Susan RiceAlice M. Rivlin
Alice Rivlin, the first director of the Congressional Budget Office, is an expert on urban issues as well as fiscal, monetary and social policy. She directs the Greater Washington Research project at Brookings.

Peter W. RodmanPeter W. Rodman
Peter W. Rodman is a Brookings senior fellow. He is an expert in regional policies relating to Europe; East Asia; South Asia; Middle East and Persian Gulf. He has served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs in the George W. Bush administration. He has also held posts in the administrations of Presidents Nixon, Ford, Reagan, and George Herbert Walker Bush. Rodman also was a senior editor at the National Review from 1991 to 1999, and the director of national security studies at the Nixon Center.

Warren B. RudmanWarren B. Rudman
Warren B. Rudman became a partner in the international law firm Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton, and Garrison after serving two terms as a U.S. Senator from New Hampshire. He currently serves as the co-chair of The Concord Coalition, and in 1985 co-authored the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings deficit reduction law, a historic step that imposed discipline and accountability on the chaotic budget process to reduce the federal deficit.

David B. SandalowDavid B. Sandalow
David Sandalow is Energy & Environment Scholar at Brookings. He is an expert on energy policy and global warming. During the Clinton administration, Sandalow served as assistant secretary of state for oceans, environment and science and as a senior director on the staff of the National Security Council.

Isabel V. SawhillIsabel V. Sawhill
Isabel V. Sawhill is a Brookings senior fellow and a co-director of the Center on Children and Families. Sawhill, who also leads the Budgeting for National Priorities project, is an expert on issues related to the federal budget, poverty, and inequality. She was an Associate Director at the Office of Management and Budget during the Clinton Administration.

Jeremy ShapiroJeremy Shapiro
Jeremy Shapiro is director of research at Center on the United States and Europe at Brookings. His expertise includes military operations; national security; and transatlantic diplomacy. Shapiro is also an adjunct professor in the Security Studies Program at Georgetown University.

Audrey SingerAudrey Singer
Audrey Singer is a demographer and Immigration Fellow at Brookings. She is an expert on the Census, emerging immigrant gateways, and metropolitan demographics. Singer, a former demographic analyst at the U.S. Department of Labor, has written extensively on U.S. immigration trends such as naturalization and citizenship issues, undocumented migration, and the nation's changing racial and ethnic composition.

Peter W. SingerPeter W. Singer
Peter Warren Singer is a senior fellow and director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at Brookings. He has written two books on changes in modern warfare. Singer lectures frequently to U.S. military audiences and has also served on the Balkans Task Force in the U.S. Department of Defense.

Rebecca SohmerRebecca Sohmer
Rebecca Sohmer is a senior research analyst in the Metropolitan Policy Program at Brookings. She was an associate at the Pennsylvania Economy League in Philadelphia and served as a research fellow for the Fannie Mae Foundation.

Charles StenholmCharles Stenholm
Charles Stenholm served the United States House of Representatives for 13 terms, representing his Texas district from 1979 to 2005. For six years, he was ranking Democrat on the House Agriculture Committee. An expert on budget and agriculture policy, Stenholm worked to shepherd the 2002 Farm Bill through Congress. He is a longtime supporter of a balanced budget amendment to the Constitution.

Strobe TalbottStrobe Talbott
Strobe Talbott is president of the Brookings Institution. Talbott, whose career spans journalism, government service, and academe, is an expert on U.S. foreign policy, with specialties on Europe, Russia, South Asia, and nuclear arms control. As deputy secretary of state in the Clinton administration, Talbott was deeply involved in both the conduct of U.S. policy abroad and the management of executive branch relations with Congress.

Shibley TelhamiShibley Telhami
Shibley Telhami is a Brookings nonresident senior fellow. Mann's expertise includes Arab-Israeli conflict, ethnic conflict, international negotiations, media and political identity, Palestinian and Israeli politics, Persian Gulf politics, and U.S. policy in the Middle East.

Christopher ThomasChristopher Thomas
Christopher Thomas is a chief strategist at the Intel Corporation, assisting Sean Maloney in the directing of sales, marketing, and branding strategy for all Intel products, platforms and initiatives. At Intel, Thomas also was director of strategic alliances for the Wireless Networking Group, the world's largest vendor of 802.11 Wi-Fi semiconductors; and director of marketing for the Optical Products Group.

Dick ThornburghDick Thornburgh
Dick Thornburgh is an active advisor and counselor to government affairs clients at Kirkpatrick & Lockhart Preston Gates Ellis LLP. Thornburgh served two terms as Governor of Pennsylvania. He was Attorney General of the United States under Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush. From 1992 to 1993, he served as undersecretary general to the United Nations. In August 2002, he was appointed Examiner in the WorldCom bankruptcy proceedings.

Margery Austin TurnerMargery Austin Turner
Margery Austin Turner directs the Urban Institute's Center on Metropolitan Housing and Communities; Turner analyzes issues of residential location, racial and ethnic discrimination, neighborhood segregation and inequality, and the effect of housing policies on residential mobility. Turner was deputy assistant secretary for Research, Evaluation, and Monitoring at the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development under Secretary Henry G. Cisneros.

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Russell WheelerRussell Wheeler
Russell Wheeler is a visiting fellow at the Brookings Institution. He studies the selection of U.S. judges and how courts function with other branches of government and the press, among other judicial topics. He is a former deputy director of the Federal Judicial Center, the research and education agency for the federal court system. He has also held positions at the National Center for State Courts and at the U.S. Supreme Court. He is the president of the Governance Institute.

Benjamin WittesBenjamin Wittes
Benjamin Wittes is fellow and research director in public law at the Brookings Institution. As a New Republic Online columnist, he focuses on the Supreme Court; judicial nominations and confirmations; and legal issues surrounding the war and terrorism. He previously served as an editorial writer for The Washington Post specializing in legal affairs. He is currently writing a book on the legal architecture of the war on terrorism and serves on the Hoover Institution Task Force on National Security and Law.

Tamara Cofman WittesTamara Cofman Wittes
Tamara Cofman Wittes directs the Project on Arab Democracy and Development at the Saban Center for Middle East Policy. She is also an expert on the Arab-Israeli peace process. Wittes was one of the first recipients of the Rabin-Peres Peace Award, established by President Clinton in 1997. She served on the Arab Reform Task Force at the Council on Foreign Relations.

Wing Thye WooWing Thye Woo
Wing Thye Woo, a Brookings senior fellow and the New Century Chair in International Trade and Economics, is an expert on the economic issues of East Asia, international financial architecture, economic growth and exchange rate economics. Woo served as a special advisor to former U.S. Treasury Secretary Robert Rubin. He has also advised the IMF, World Bank and the United Nations.

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